Developmental dyslexia is the commonest “specific learning disorder” (DSM-5) or “developmental learning disorder with impairment in reading” (ICD-11).
This impairment in reading acquisition is related to a defect in the installation of cognitive precursors necessary to master the grapheme–phoneme conversion. Its origin is largely genetic, but many environ- mental factors seem capable of modulating symptom intensity. Three types of presentation, roughly equal in occurrence, are useful to distinguish according to the associated disorders (language, attentional, and/or motor coordination), thus suggesting, at least in part, potentially different mechanisms at their origin. In adolescence and adulthood the clinical presentation tends to bear a more uniform pattern, covering a large range of severity depending on each person’s ability to compensate for their deficit. Research has dem- onstrated dysfunction of specific brain areas during reading-related tasks (using fMRI), essentially in the left cerebral hemisphere, but also atypical patterns of connectivity (using diffusion imaging), further supplemented by functional connectivity studies at rest. The current therapeutic recommendations empha- size the need for multidisciplinary care, giving priority, depending on the clinical form, to the language, psychomotor, or neuropsychologic aspects of rehabilitation. Various training methods whose effectiveness has been scientifically tested are reviewed, emphasizing those exploiting the hypothesis of a lack of intermodal connectivity between separate cognitive systems.

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